I’ll divide the answer into 4 parts, 1) what’s the meaning of the url you enter ? 2) what’s the model OSI ?, 3) what happens in your web browser when you press enter (Google Chrome, Safari…), 4 ) The flow from you web browser into servers in a data-center.

In this article i’ll take as example https://www.holbertonschool.com but it works the same way with your favorite website.

What’s the meaning of the url you just entered in you favorite web brower ?

The url (ex: https://www.holbertonschool.com) you enter means a lot of things in reality. To make it understandable, i’ll separate the url into pieces :


Internet of Things

Well, First of all, in this article i will explain what is IoT, secondly, how can be useful IoT on your daily life, and to finish, what is the main problem of IoT.

So what is IoT ?

IoT mean Internet of Things but what that mean concretly ? Internet of Things means all objects physical that are connected between each other and other services (physical or not). As example, your iPhone can be connected with your Apple Watch.

All these objects are interconnected in multiple ways as Bluetooth, Wi-FiIoT can connects a variety of objects, sensors, alarms, cameras…


So in this today article, i will talk about database, SQL, DBMS, RDBMS(SQL Database engine) and how works SQL Database Engines….(as simple as possible).

I want to explain firstly, what is a data and what is a database :

Data is simply raw informations about something as age, nationality, that can be also statistics… A database is where you will store all these informations in order to save them and retrieve them when you want. …


So in this today article, i will talk about database, SQL, DBMS, RDBMS(SQL Database engine) and how works SQL Database Engines….(as simple as possible).

I want to explain firstly, what is a data and what is a database :

Data is simply raw informations about something as age, nationality, that can be also statistics… A database is where you will store all these informations in order to save them and retrieve them when you want. …


“A Picture is Worth 1,500 Words”

Recursion is basically a simple loop but instead of using loops as *while* or *for* the function will call himself indefinitely.

Function call himself

The function will call himself indefinitely if you don’t put a condition to stop the recursion at a specific times.

To image, i will take a really basic example for you to understand more easily, so i will take a number 5 and i will increase his value at each time the function call himself and put a condition to stop the recursion when number is equal to 0, we will get at the end the sum (5 +…


In python almost everything is an object, today in this article i’ll talk about the different data type, how know the type and get the id of a data, we’ll also see immutable and mutable object, how python treat mutable/immutable object (assignment, aliasing..), how argument of function are treated and a bonus.

  • First, the data type in python are list, dictionary, tuple, string, int, float…all of these are object.

This article will cover many things about object oriented in python, we will at first see what means “Object oriented programming”, what is a class, what is an attribute (class attribute, instance attribute..), what is a method(reserved method..), what is an instance, differences with class attributes and instance attributes, how to create a class with attributes, methods…

So to start, what means “Object oriented programming” ?

Object oriented programming (OOP) is a paradigm in programmation with the conception of everything is an object, these objects contains data (attributes) and code (methods). The idea behind the concept of object is that…


First of all, it’s better to understand why we need to use library in C (Linux)

The primary reason of it, is, using library will help you a lot, you will not have to re-write them in your file and make more and more doublons, with library you will just have to call functions you need in your program.

So now we know why use library, why use a dynamic library instead of a static one?

There is two ways of process with library, the linker will connect all the function.. at the last step of compilation (linker) needed to…


So today, in this article i will explain how are stored integers in memory, how the computer deals with negative and positive number using one complement and two’s complement.

Before to explain in details, what is an integer ? An integer is a positive/negative number, in the programming language C integers (signed) are stored in 4 bytes (32 bits), 1 bytes is 8 bits, with a max value : 2,147,483,647.

As you well know, computer are all about 0 and 1, so the base we will deal with will be base 2.


You might have multiple function that you created in the past and you think it’ll good to re-use them, but to do this you might need to re-write them in your file or use other way but not really relevant. So Today in this article i will show you, what is a static libraries and why use them, how to create one and how to use them, but it exists also an another type of library called dynamic library but i’ll not cover this subject today, only the static library.

So what is a static library and why use them…

Thibaut Bernard

Software engineer student at HolbertonSchool 👉https://github.com/ThibautBernard 👉https://twitter.com/__ThibautDev

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